Dr. Overy's KBase: Resources for Teaching and Learning
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Glossary

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  • Absolute temperature
    A temperature scale with its units in Kelvin
  • Absolute Zero
    The theoretical lowest possible temperature. It is the theoretical temperature at which entropy reaches its minimum value.
  • Acceleration
    The rate at which the velocity of a body changes with time
  • Accuracy
    A measurement result is considered accurate if it is judged to be close to the true
    value
  • Acid Rain
    Commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. The more accurate term is acid precipitation. Clean or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic pH of 5.6, the extra acidity in rain comes from the reaction of air pollutants, primarily Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides, with water in the air to form strong acids (like sulphuric and nitric acid). The main sources of these pollutants are vehicles and industrial and power-generating plants.
  • Activation energy
    The energy required to initiate a chemical reaction or process, abbreviated Ea
  • Active transport
    The opposite of passive transport, active transport involves the input of energy , the building of concentration gradients, and the action of a membrane pump to create high concentrations of molecules.
  • Adiabatic
    A process where heat does not enter or leave a system
  • Aerobic
    An organism or cell that requires oxygen to carry out its metabolic processes; a process that requires oxygen.
  • Air Pollution
    The release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5.  

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution#Forms_of_pollution
  • Air Quality
    A measurement of the pollutants in the air
  • Alga
    Unicellular or multicellular organisms formerly classified as plants, occurring in fresh or salt water or moist ground, that have chlorophyll and other pigments but lack true stems, roots, and leaves
  • Algae
     Mostly aquatic plantlike organisms that range in size from one cell to large multi-celled seaweed and are photosynthetic.
  • Angular Velocity
    The rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time.
  • Anion
    A negatively charged ion that migrates to the anode in an electrical cell.
  • Anomalies
    These are values in a set of results which are judged not to be part of the variation caused by random uncertainty
  • Antibiotics
    A medicine  that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
  • Antibodies
    Specialized cells of the immune system which can recognize organisms that invade the body (such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi). 
  • Antibody
    A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood
  • AQA
    An awarding body in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It compiles specifications and holds examinations in various subjects at GCSE, AS and A Level and offers vocational qualifications
  • ASE
    The ASE (Association for Science Education) is a community of teachers, technicians, and other professionals supporting science education and is the largest subject association in the UK
  • Bacteria
    Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent on another organism for life). The plural of bacterium.
  • Becquerel, Henri
    French physicist, born in Paris (1852-1908). Becquerel's most famous work is his study of uranium salts, which he discovered produced rays that caused gas to ionize. This type of radiation was termed Becquerel radiation.
  • Big Bang
    The term "Big Bang" was coined by Fred Hoyle in 1949 to describe an event 13.7 million years ago involving the rapid expansion of matter and energy from a single hot, dense point
  • Binary Stars
    A term coined by Sir William Herschel in 1802 to describe a pair of stars that revolve around a common mass and are unaffected by the mass of other stars, creating their own system.
  • Biodegradable
    Materials that will decompose into naturally occurring, harmless components with exposure to air, sunlight and/or moisture.
  • Biodiversity
    The variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations. This phrase acts as generic terminology for Eco-system diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity.
  • Biofuel
    A fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils produced by plants. Examples of biofuel include alcohol, bio diesel from vegetable oil and wood.
  • Biomass
    The total mass of all living organisms within a biological community. Biomass usually refers to plant matter grown for use as Biofuel, but also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibres, chemicals or heat. Biomass may also include Biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel.
  • Biosphere
    The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life

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